I am JaKePositive...I am a Homosexual...I am a Filipino...I am a Proud Ilonggo... I am HIV + since June 2010... I started my ARV Treatment May 4,2013 since my CD4 dropped to 107... I am here to RAISE AWARENESS... I am here to ENCOURAGE HIV TESTING... I am here to SUPPORT MY BROTHER'S and SISTER'S who are living with HIV... I am an ADVOCATE FOR CHANGE...

Tuesday, December 18, 2012

POSITIVE PREVENTION




http://dominicanewsonline.com/news/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/hiv.jpg 
What is 
 POSITIVE PREVENTION?

Positive prevention aims to increase the self-esteem, confidence and ability of HIV positive people to protect their own health and to avoid passing on the infection to others. It needs to be implemented within an ethical framework that respects the rights and needs of people living with HIV to enjoy sexual relationships, have reproductive choices and live a full and healthy life. Positive prevention needs a supportive legal and policy environment to protect the rights of people living with HIV – in particular their sexual rights.
 

Why POSITIVE PREVENTION ?

More than 40 million people worldwide are now living with HIV. Only a small proportion of them know their HIV status and many people with HIV still do not have access to ARV treatment. The global commitments to reaching universal access to HIV treatment, prevention, care and support aim to close these access gaps. As more people become aware of their HIV status and access HIV treatment, greater efforts are needed to adapt or create HIV prevention programmes that meet the HIV prevention needs of people living with HIV. Most prevention strategies to date have been directed towards people who are uninfected with HIV or who do not know their status, to prevent them from becoming infected. Few strategies and messages are designed specifically for HIV positive people. This needs to change.






POSITIVE PREVENTION: TAKING ACTION


Strategy 1:
Information, Education and Risk Reduction


Issues to consider
Most people – even nurses and counselors – find talking about sex very difficult. It is important to recognize that people with HIV continue to have sexual lives after an HIV diagnosis. Positive prevention services need to support open discussions about sex and relationships.

It has been common in some settings for counselors and nurses to tell HIV positive people that they should abstain from sex completely or just have sex with someone else who is HIV positive. This advice may not be helpful to their psychological health on the one hand and on the other hand may expose to them reinfection. It also does not help the majority of HIV positive people who continue to be sexually active, nor those who are in relationships with HIV negative partners and want to continue a safer sexual relationship. The role of health service providers is to ensure that HIV positive people gain the skills they need to negotiate safer sex and maintain healthy sexual relationships.

People’s perceptions of risk can change when their health situation improves. A crucial moment to reinforce prevention messages is when people have been on ARV treatment for some time and are feeling better. Counseling and peer support can help people living with HIV deal with these changes and support protective behavior when their health situation improves.

Introducing referral systems during the process of information dissemination is essential to link HIV positive people with services that may be available for them, such as treatment education and adherence support, STI diagnosis and treatment, community-based support groups, harm reduction services and so on.

The challenge is to empower people with HIV to explore and maintain ways of being sexually active that are full, satisfying and safe. Learning techniques to support consistent condom use and ways to have non-penetrative sex may help to achieve this.

Counseling needs to help HIV positive people and their partners to identify and address barriers that make it difficult to practice safer sex consistently, such as the need for intimacy or fears of rejection.


Let’s talk about Pregnancy!

Issues to consider
Availability and quality of local Pregnant Mother To Child Transmission (PMTCT) services.

Availability and quality of local family planning clinics with staff who have been trained in HIV care and support.

Opportunities exist for HIV positive people to discuss reproductive choices. These may exist in HIV treatment centers, family planning centers, voluntary counseling and testing centers and HIV service organizations. Discussing the choices available is an important step for HIV positive couples who are considering having a baby in order to protect the health of the mother and reduce the chances of HIV transmission to the baby.

Some HIV positive women find it useful to discuss their questions and thoughts about having babies with other HIV positive women. Community support groups can often provide this opportunity.

HIV positive women need support and information in order to take ARV treatment during pregnancy. Many are worried about the effects of the drugs on the baby. Some HIV positive women fear others will find out about their HIV status if they take ARV treatment. Counselors and people who provide information on ARV treatment need to be aware of
these issues and be prepared to discuss them with pregnant HIV positive women.

Male partners need to be involved in discussing options for safe conception, pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding.



Strategy 2:
Post-test and Ongoing Counseling


Issues to consider
People living with HIV play a vital role in facilitating peer counseling sessions, using their experience of living with HIV. It is important to ensure that HIV positive people are well trained, receive the support they need to play this role and are properly remunerated.

As with HIV testing, many people are reluctant to access counseling even when it is available. This is especially true of highly stigmatized populations such as sex workers, men who have sex with men, injecting drug users, refugees and young people. Counseling services must be developed in ways that respond to the specific needs of these groups. Strategies to raise awareness and promote uptake of counseling services need to include outreach and peer-based methods to mobilize and engage marginalized communities. Counseling needs to be part of good referral pathways to community organizations and structures such as post-test clubs, NGOs, community-based organizations, private and public health providers, traditional healers, groups of people living with HIV, churches, businesses and trade associations.

Health care workers are often in need of training and sensitization to the needs and rights of HIV positive people from marginalized communities. Many HIV positive people experience significant stigma and discrimination in health care settings, and training of health care workers about HIV and HIV-related discrimination helps to overcome these problems.



Strategy 3:
Counseling for Sero-Discordant Couples


Issues to consider
It is more difficult to promote counseling for couples in societies where there are cultural taboos that impede open discussion about sex and sexuality. Couples may be reluctant to attend counseling sessions together, and as a result it can be difficult to implement this strategy. It is important to work closely with communities and provide contextually sensitive alternatives to deal with these obstacles, such as organizing post-test clubs or support groups for couples, and engaging traditional leaders, headmen or church leaders as “gatekeepers” of gender and community norms.

There are many barriers to maintaining consistent condom use, including local taboos and myths; the desire for sexual intimacy and trust, and perceptions that condoms interrupt this intimacy; drug and alcohol use; and inability to negotiate condom use. Counseling cannot always overcome these barriers. Counselors should be prepared to deal with these and other difficulties.

Health care providers play an important role in supporting sero-discordant couples and promoting discussions on the role of non-positive partners in supporting adherence to treatment, decision making on pregnancy and parenting, or more general discussions about sex and sexual health.



Strategy 4:
Dealing with Disclosure


Issues to consider
HIV positive people have the right to choose who, how and when they tell about their status. Advising all people to disclose always can have many negative consequences.

In some communities women have more to lose than men. Many women do not disclose their status for fear that their children will be discriminated against in school or in their community. Many women fear domestic violence or have experienced domestic violence as a result of disclosing their status to their partners. It is important to understand that disclosure to just one or two people and not to members of the family is an alternative for many people who want to protect themselves and their families from harm.

Strategies to promote disclosure should be supported by community education and advocacy efforts to ensure that laws and policies are in place that protect HIV positive people against discrimination and that promote confidentiality and privacy.


Strategy 5:
HIV Testing and Counseling


Issues to consider
As the number of testing and counseling sites increases, it is essential to ensure quality. The establishment of networking opportunities to share experiences among testing providers, improve referral systems and promote best practice can support quality standards in testing.

In some places it is difficult to recruit enough trained counselors to respond to the increasing demand for testing. UNAIDS (2002) provides suggestions on how to incorporate different kinds of counselors, with different roles, training and responsibilities. People living with HIV can become peer counselors, drawing on their own experiences. Non-health care workers can be trained in rapid test kit use, lay counselors can be employed, and specific courses on HIV testing can be provided and accredited, avoiding the need to recruit qualified generic counselors, psychologists or social workers. It is important to provide training for counselors who may find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual relations.

Pre-test group counseling offers a further alternative in situations where there are too few counselors. Pre-test counseling is first provided to a group of people and then the decision to go for testing (or not) is made on an individual basis. Post-test counseling is only provided on an individual basis. Group counseling prior to a test offers an alternative way to deal with the needs of specific populations, such as men who have sex with men, injecting drug users or sex workers, or in health care settings such as antenatal clinics.



Strategy 6:
Treatment and Care


Issues to consider
It is important to ensure clear information about ARV treatment for all households, communities and people with HIV to avoid misunderstandings and to clarify the complex issues around treatment. Information should include basic facts on the type of treatment available, the need for high levels of adherence, the side effects of taking treatment and the need for good nutrition.

Some studies point to behavior change as a result of ARV treatment. “Treatment optimism” is the term applied to the phenomenon of false perceptions arising out of treatment success, leading to a “relaxing” of safer sex practice. The extent of this problem is unknown, but concerns about the potential for treatment optimism underlines the importance of constant and comprehensive strategies for positive prevention to address false perceptions about ARV treatment and infectivity.

The relationship between the health care worker and the patient is essential to ensure that people understand their treatment and follow the prescription they have received. Health care workers and peer treatment supporters can support people to understand their medications and take them regularly. Treatment services provide vitally important opportunities to reinforce positive prevention.


Strategy 7:
Prevention Supplies and Commodities


Issues to consider
Availability, access and affordability of male and female condoms and lubricant. Organizations that specialize in social condom marketing and free condom distribution can work together with health clinics to ensure a reliable supply of condoms and that wider distribution is achieved.

Correct and consistent condom use is essential for people living with HIV. This information should be made widely available in health care facilities and ARV treatment delivery sites.

Promoting condom use among stable couples can be challenging. Couples who may assume it is too late to adopt safer sexual practices must be encouraged and supported to use condoms through ongoing counseling. Health care facilities need to be linked to counseling services in order to support HIV positive people to make good-quality risk assessments of different sexual behaviors and to promote ongoing condom use.


Strategy 8:
Developing Referral Systems


Issues to consider
A referral system works best when the care providers are familiar with both the nature and the quality of services provided by each facility in order to make appropriate referrals. The experience of people using the services should also be considered in assessing and improving the quality of services.

It is important to ensure a two-way referral system from community to health care services and back to the community. Availability of a pamphlet listing all the services that can be accessed in a particular community may help maintain a good flow in the referral process.


Strategy 9:
Facilitating Post-Test Clubs and other Peer Support Groups


Issues to consider
In high-prevalence countries, post-test clubs have proved effective in reducing stigma related to HIV at community level. In countries where the epidemic is concentrated in specific groups, care should be taken to ensure that post-test clubs do not draw negative attention, increasing stigma and discrimination towards groups already marginalized in society, such as people living with HIV, injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, and sex workers.

Women living with HIV often need particular support and may prefer to discuss some issues only with other HIV positive women. The creation of HIV positive women-only support groups can help women discuss issues such as how to get their men to practice safer sex; how to disclose their status to partners or children; pregnancy and breastfeeding; and how, when and where to ask for home-based care or to organize income generating activities to ensure household security.

Specific support groups for injecting drug users have also proved essential in order to create safer spaces for former or active users. Some of these groups may be connected to needle exchange and methadone substitution programmes in countries where these are available.

Support groups for specific populations such as HIV positive sex workers or HIV positive men who have sex with other men are important for creating safe spaces where they can meet together and develop networks of mutual support. They also can become a platform for advocacy aimed at improving services, highlighting human rights abuses and participating in decision making.


Strategy 10:
Training HIV Positive People as Peer Educators and Counsellors


Issues to consider
There is an assumption that the experience of living with HIV is a sufficient basis for becoming a community worker. Many HIV positive people have gone through very difficult times and need support to rebuild their confidence before taking on the role of a community worker. Lack of formal education should not be an obstacle to training or
to operating as peer counselors. There are many ways of offering information and support that do not rely on the use of printed materials. For example, in Khayelitsha, South Africa, the Mothers 2 Mothers 2 Be programme is supporting HIV positive pregnant women to make decisions about safe motherhood through peer counseling. HIV positive women who have recently had HIV negative babies share their experiences with pregnant women in the waiting rooms of antenatal clinics and provide information on safe delivery and breastfeeding.

Training for peer counselors and peer educators should include support to cope with the stresses of this challenging work. Ongoing supervision is also important to ensure that information provided is up to date and accurate.

Personal testimonies by HIV positive speakers can be powerful vehicles for HIV and AIDS awareness raising, and may help to reduce stigma and discrimination. But people need support and encouragement to speak publicly.

People living with HIV may be effective community educators, but they should be remunerated adequately, financially or in kind.


Strategy 11:
Reinforcing Positive Prevention through Home-Based Care


Issues to consider
Home-based care team members and volunteers need to be well supported to ensure they have the skills and resources needed to provide prevention, treatment, care and support services, including accurate information on HIV prevention, safer sex and sexual health.

Appropriate training and support should be offered to every member of the home-based care team, and in particular to people living with HIV who form part of the home-based care team.


Strategy 12:
Reinforcing Positive Prevention through Harm Reduction and Needle Exchange Programmes


Issues to consider
HIV positive injecting drug users are regularly denied access to health care services, including ARV treatment, because of their drug use. More efforts are needed to develop different service models and to provide adequate training to health care providers to respond to the specific needs of injecting drug users, without discrimination. Mobile clinics, outreach services and services that address the other needs of drug users – these are some examples of the ways in which services need to adapt to meet the needs of drug users who are often highly stigmatized, very poor and who have many health and social support needs.

It is important to combine improving services for drug users with advocacy efforts to ensure equal access to health care services, including ARV treatment, to all HIV positive people, including those who inject drugs.

Understanding the particular needs of women who use drugs is an important dimension of positive prevention for drug users. Dependency on drugs can create particular pressures for women, and many need direct support from peers or from services to gain some control over both their injecting and their sexual lives. It is important to have separate support groups for women, and separate information and education on sex and sexual health, relationships, drugs and substitution therapy, and pregnancy and family planning services.


Strategy 13:
Involving HIV positive people


Issues to consider
HIV prevention efforts targeting people living with HIV and other vulnerable populations are more effective when the target communities are involved. This involvement can also contribute towards reducing stigma in their community. The involvement of people living with HIV in the planning, development, delivery and evaluation of positive prevention enhances the relevance and reach of these interventions.

HIV positive people have the right to make decisions about the level and type of their
involvement. They also have the right to choose to be involved without making their HIV status public.

Organizations need to create an organizational culture that is conducive to meaningful involvement, This includes promoting behaviors, language and attitudes that encourage involvement. As well as organizational policy that supports people with HIV to work effectively at all levels of an organization.


Strategy 14:
Advocacy for HIV prevention


Issues to consider
Advocacy efforts are stronger when they include people living with HIV. Mobilizing the voices of people with HIV who need services has a powerful effect on decision-makers.

Where ARV treatment is limited, it is important to recognize that an overemphasis on HIV
prevention for people with HIV can have a stigmatizing effect and can reinforce harmful stereotypes of HIV positive people as exclusively responsible for HIV transmission.


Strategy 15:
Creating a Supportive Legal and Policy Environment for Positive Prevention


Issues to consider
Legal remedies and law reform to protect the rights of HIV positive people can have a powerful impact by enshrining their rights in law. But these processes – advocating and campaigning for law reform – can be lengthy and resource intensive. Coalitions of groups with similar interests have been effective in campaigning for HIV-related law reform.

Supportive legal and policy environments are created not only by good laws and policy but also by good education – of the general public, of professionals and of specific communities. Education about HIV and AIDS in and of itself is not enough. The general public, professionals and specific communities need education about HIV- related discrimination and the harm it causes.




Source:
www.aidsalliance.org/includes/.../Positive_prevention.pdf


JaKe Positive. BE SAFE! +)

Sunday, December 16, 2012

HIV & CANCER

About HIV/AIDS-related Cancer

People with HIV/AIDS have a high risk of developing certain cancers, such as Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer. For people with HIV, these three cancers are often called “AIDS-defining conditions,” meaning that if a person with an HIV infection has one of these cancers it can signify the development of AIDS.

The connection between HIV/AIDS and certain cancers is not completely understood, but the link likely depends on a weakened immune system. Most types of cancer begin when normal cells change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous, meaning it can spread to other parts of the body). The types of cancer most common for people with HIV/AIDS are described in more detail below.


Kaposi sarcoma
Kaposi sarcoma is a type of skin cancer that has traditionally occurred in older men of Jewish or Mediterranean descent, young men in Africa, or people who have had organ transplantation. Today, Kaposi sarcoma is found most often in homosexual men with HIV/AIDS and is related to an infection with the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8).
 
HIV/AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma causes lesions to arise in more than one area of the body, including the skin, lymph nodes, and organs such as the liver, spleen, lungs, and digestive tract.


Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

 
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer of the lymph system. Lymphoma begins when cells in the lymph system change and grow uncontrollably, which may form a tumor. The lymph system is made up of thin tubes that branch to all parts of the body. Its job is to fight infection. The lymph system carries lymph, a colorless fluid containing white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes fight germs in the body. Groups of tiny, bean-shaped organs called lymph nodes are located throughout the body at different sites in the lymph system. Lymph nodes are found in clusters in the abdomen, groin, pelvis, underarms, and neck. Other parts of the lymph system include the spleen, which makes lymphocytes and filters blood; the thymus, an organ under the breastbone; and the tonsils, located in the throat.

There are many different subtypes of NHL. The most common subtypes of NHL in people with HIV/AIDS are primary central nervous system lymphoma (affecting the brain and spinal fluid), primary effusion lymphoma (causing fluid to build up around the lungs or in the abdomen), or intermediate and high-grade lymphoma.


Cervical cancer

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_RDPYylESfZE/TMMs9xfjKFI/AAAAAAAAAuI/mS_kCa5uzTo/s1600/Cervical-Cancer.jpg


Cervical cancer starts in a woman's cervix, the lower, narrow part of the uterus. The uterus holds the growing fetus during pregnancy. The cervix connects the lower part of the uterus to the vagina and, with the vagina, forms the birth canal. Cervical cancer is also called cancer of the cervix.

Women with HIV/AIDS have a higher risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), a precancerous growth of cells in the cervix that is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. High-grade CIN can turn into invasive cervical cancer.


Other types of cancer
  
Other, less common types of cancer that may develop in people with HIV/AIDS are Hodgkin lymphoma, angiosarcoma (a type of cancer that begins in the lining of the blood vessels), anal cancer, liver cancermouth cancer, throat cancer, lung cancer, testicular cancer, colorectal cancer, and types of skin cancer including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.
 
 
 
 
 
 
LATEST CANCER INFORMATION
from Johns Hopkins


AFTER YEARS OF TELLING PEOPLE CHEMOTHERAPY IS THE ONLY WAY TO TRY AND ELIMINATE CANCER, JOHNS HOPKINS IS FINALLY S
TARTING TO TELL YOU THERE IS AN ALTERNATIVE WAY …


1. Every person has cancer cells in the body. These cancer cells do not show up in the standard tests until they have multiplied to a few billion. When doctors tell cancer patients that there are no more cancer cells in their bodies after treatment, it just means the tests are unable to detect the cancer cells because they have not reached the detectable size.


2. Cancer cells occur between 6 to more than 10 times in a person's lifetime.


3. When the person's immune system is strong the cancer cells will be destroyed and prevented from multiplying and forming tumors.


4. When a person has cancer it indicates the person has multiple nutritional deficiencies. These could be due to genetic, environmental, food and lifestyle factors.


5. To overcome the multiple nutritional deficiencies, changing diet and including supplements will strengthen the immune system.


6. Chemotherapy involves poisoning the rapidly-growing cancer cells and also destroys rapidly-growing healthy cells in the bone marrow, gastro-intestinal tract etc, and can cause organ damage, like liver, kidneys, heart, lungs etc.


7. Radiation while destroying cancer cells also burns, scars and damages healthy cells, tissues and organs.


8. Initial treatment with chemotherapy and radiation will often reduce tumor size. However prolonged use of chemotherapy and radiation do not result in more tumor destruction.


9. When the body has too much toxic burden from chemotherapy and radiation the immune system is either compromised or destroyed, hence the person can succumb to various kinds of infections and complications.


10. Chemotherapy and radiation can cause cancer cells to mutate and become resistant and difficult to destroy. Surgery can also cause cancer cells to spread to other sites.



11. An effective way to battle cancer is to STARVE the cancer cells by not feeding it with foods it needs to multiple.


What cancer cells feed on:


a. Sugar is a cancer-feeder. By cutting off sugar it cuts off one important food supply to the cancer cells. Note: Sugar substitutes like NutraSweet, Equal, Spoonful, etc are made with Aspartame and it is harmful. A better natural substitute would be Manuka honey or molasses but only in very small amounts. Table salt has a chemical added to make it white in colour. Better alternative is Bragg's aminos or sea salt.



b. Milk causes the body to produce mucus, especially in the gastro-intestinal tract. Cancer feeds on mucus. By cutting off milk and substituting with unsweetened soy milk, cancer cells will starved.


c. Cancer cells thrive in an acid environment. A meat-based diet is acidic and it is best to eat fish, and a little chicken rather than beef or pork. Meat also contains livestock antibiotics, growth hormones and parasites, which are all harmful, especially to people with cancer.


d. A diet made of 80% fresh vegetables and juice, whole grains, seeds, nuts and a little fruits help put the body into an alkaline environment. About 20% can be from cooked food including beans. Fresh vegetable juices provide live enzymes that are easily absorbed and reach down to cellular levels within 15 minutes t o nourish and enhance growth of healthy cells.


To obtain live enzymes for building healthy cells try and drink fresh vegetable juice (most vegetables including bean sprouts) and eat some raw vegetables 2 or 3 times a day. Enzymes are destroyed at temperatures of 104 degrees F (40 degrees C).


e. Avoid coffee, tea, and chocolate, which have high caffeine. Green tea is a better alternative and has cancer-fighting properties. Water--best to drink purified water, or filtered, to avoid known toxins and heavy metals in tap water. Distilled water is acidic, avoid it.


12. Meat protein is difficult to digest and requires a lot of digestive enzymes. Undigested meat remaining in the intestines will become putrified and leads to more toxic buildup.


13. Cancer cell walls have a tough protein covering. By refraining from or eating less meat it frees more enzymes to attack the protein walls of cancer cells and allows the body's killer cells to destroy the cancer cells.


14. Some supplements build up the immune system (IP6, Flor-ssence, Essiac, anti-oxidants, vitamins, minerals, EFAs etc.) to enable the body's own killer cells to destroy cancer cells. Other supplements like vitamin E are known to cause apoptosis, or programmed cell death, the body's normal method of disposing of damaged, unwanted, or unneeded cells.


15. Cancer is a disease of the mind, body, and spirit. A proactive and positive spirit will help the cancer warrior be a survivor.


Anger, unforgiving and bitterness put the body into a stressful and acidic environment. Learn to have a loving and forgiving spirit. Learn to relax and enjoy life.


16. Cancer cells cannot thrive in an oxygenated environment. Exercising daily, and deep breathing help to get more oxygen down to the cellular level. Oxygen therapy is another means employed to destroy cancer cells.


(PLEASE SHARE IT TO PEOPLE YOU CARE ABOUT)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sources:
http://www.thebody.com/content/art16834.html
http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=456834657707653&set=a.454448761279576.104452.120015908056198&type=1&theater 
 
 
 
JaKe Positive. BE SAFE! +) 

Friday, November 23, 2012

VCT vs BLOOD DONATION

  

VOLUNTARY COUNSELING and TESTING for HIV
VERSUS
 BLOOD DONATION

I heard a lot of stories of people who donate blood for the purpose of knowing their HIV Status. Well on my opinion they are doing it the wrong way. In this topic I will discuss about Voluntary Counseling and Testing for HIV vs. Blood Donation

Rapid HIV Test Kit

VOLUNTARY COUNSELING and TESTING  for HIV

            is a procedure done to a person who voluntary submits himself/herself to be screened for HIV. This Procedure is done by a trained VCT Counselor who does the Pre- and Post-Test Counseling. Counseling before and after an HIV test is important because it provides critical information about HIV itself and about the testing process. While counseling services may not be available in all health care settings, many testing sites do offer these services. If you would like access to pre-test and post-test counseling, be sure to inquire about the availability of these services at your chosen test site. If they do not have them readily available, the staff may be able to direct you to alternate service providers who do.

Pre-test counseling sessions generally include the following:
  • Information about the HIV test—what it tests for, what it might NOT tell you, and how long it will take you to get your results
  • Information about how HIV is transmitted and how you can protect yourself from infection
  • Information about the confidentiality of your test results
  • A clear, easy-to-understand explanation of what your test results mean
After Pre-Test Counseling the HIV Counselor will direct you to a HIV Proficient Medical Technologist and he/she will extract blood for it to be screened for HIV.

Anonymous HIV testing is a procedure whereby the identity of the individual being tested is protected or not known. Two methods of anonymous HIV testing are the unlinked anonymous and the voluntary anonymous.

Any person who submits to anonymous HIV testing shall not be required to provide a name, age, address or any other information that may potentially identify the same. In the case of voluntary anonymous HIV testing an identifying symbol is substituted for the person’s true name or identity. The symbol enables the laboratory doing the test and the test person to match the test result with the said symbol.

Once the results are available, you will usually be given the results in private and in person. (THE CLIENT SHOULD BE THE FIRST ONE TO SEE WHAT THE RESULT IS AND IF HE/SHE WANTS TO VERIFY IT THEN HE/SHE COULD HAND IT OVER TO THE COUNSELOR FOR THEM TO INTERPRET THE RESULT.)

Post-test counseling generally includes:
  • Clear communication about what your test result means
  • HIV prevention counseling, if your results are negative
  • A confirmatory test, called a Western blot test, if your results are positive. The results of that test should be available within 2-3 weeks.
  • Proper referral to Treatment Hub to access mostly FREE SERVICES
 
 
 VCT FLOW (if specimen is POSITIVE)
TESTING ALGORHYTHM








   



BLOOD DONATION

            occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions.

STEPS ON BLOOD DONATION
  • Have your weight taken.
  • Register and honestly and complete the donor registration form.
  • Have your blood type and hemoglobin checked.
  • A physician will conduct a blood donor examination.
  • Actual donation--the amount of blood to be donated (either 350cc or 450cc) will depend on the donor's weight and blood pressure. It usually takes 10 minutes or less.
  • A 5 to 10 minute rest and plenty of fluid-intake are necessary after donation.
In the screening process, you have to fill out a blood donation questionnaire form that includes direct questions about behaviors known to carry a higher risk of blood-borne infections—infections that are transmitted through the blood. These behaviors include prostitution, intravenous drug use and others. Each unit of blood collected will be examined for 5 transfusion-transmissible infectious diseases, namely: HIV, Malaria, Syphillis, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C before it is transfused to patients. A trained physician will be asking you about your medical/ health history, and a physical examination will be conducted—which includes checking your blood pressure, pulse and temperature. All of the information from this evaluation is kept strictly confidential.

During your blood donation screening procedure, a small sample of blood taken from a finger prick is used to check your hemoglobin level, the oxygen-carrying component of your blood. If your hemoglobin concentration is normal, and you've met all the other screening requirements, you can donate blood.

Donated Blood that tests positive for HIV is sent to Research Institute for Tropical Medicine for it to be recorded and then DISPOSED RIGHT AWAY WITHOUT NOTIFYING THE CLIENT.





As a Summary Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), the CLIENT is screened for HIV while in Blood Donation the BLOOD is the one screened for Sexually Transmissible Infection including HIV.

Implications for getting screened for HIV through BLOOD DONATION is that you won't be informed of your Status and so it's still possible that you will do the same risky behavior and probably would be able to transmit it to other people unknowingly. Also the Blood that you donated if it would reveal a FALSE NEGATIVE result because of the WINDOW PERIOD would also be a danger to the recipient (Good thing that screening for blood nowadays have been very updated , they use the ANTIGEN TEST wherein as early as 3weeks would already detect HIV). And with you being unaware of your HIV Status would result to serious complications in the future and could even lead to DEATH.


A WORD OF ADVISE: 
KNOW YOUR STATUS ( HIV + or HIV - ? )
BE RESPONSIBLE ( Abstinence, Be Faithful to Uninfected partner, Correct and Consistent Condom Use, Don't Share Used Needles/Syringes)
GET TESTED ( If you have doubts about your HIV Status, it's better to submit yourself for VCT  in about 3months from your last risky behavior, NEVER DONATE BLOOD for the purpose of knowing your HIV Status )
KNOW THE FACTS ( Education & Early Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infection )

 



Sources:

 
Jake Positive. BE SAFE! +)

Sunday, November 18, 2012

THE RED RIBBON

 

The RED RIBBON is the international symbol of HIV and AIDS awareness, a symbol of respect for People Living with HIV and AIDS. It reminds us all of the constant need to keep up with the fight against HIV and AIDS.

It was created in early 1991 by Visual AIDs in New York for a global symbol in the fight against HIV and AIDS. It is a symbol for Solidarity and Acceptance with those often discriminated upon by the public, the People Living with HIV and AIDS.

The RED RIBBON is . . .

  • "Red" like LOVE, as a symbol of Compassion and Acceptance towards those affected.
  • "Red" like BLOOD, representing the pain experienced by the many people who suffered and died with AIDS.
  • "Red" like ANGER against helplessness for we are facing a disease for which there is still no change of CURE.
  • "Red" as a sign of WARNING not to carelessly ignore the one of the biggest problems of our time.




JaKe Positive. BE SAFE! +)



Wednesday, November 7, 2012

QUOTE




JaKe Positive. BE SAFE! +)

VACCINATION 101


A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.
Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated).

Vaccines do not guarantee complete protection from a disease. Sometimes, this is because the host's immune system simply does not respond adequately or at all. This may be due to a lowered immunity in general (diabetes, steroid use, HIV infection, age) or because the host's immune system does not have a B cell capable of generating antibodies to that antigen.
Even if the host develops antibodies, the human immune system is not perfect and in any case the immune system might still not be able to defeat the infection immediately. In this case, the infection will be less severe and heal faster.


Who should get vaccinated?

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control have come out with updated vaccine guidelines for adults, especially women in the reproductive age group:
  • Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) vaccination is recommended for women of all ages.
  • All adults should receive 2 doses of Varicella vaccine.
  • The influenza vaccine is indicated in all adults and should be repeated yearly.

In the Philippines, the peak of the flu season is during the rainy months of June to September. The best time to get the flu vaccine is between March and June, although getting immunized in later months can still provide protection.


 
More vaccine guidelines
  • In pregnant women, the only vaccines to be avoided are MMR, varicella and herpes zoster.
  • Don’t get pregnant one month after receiving these vaccines.
  • All adults between 19-64 years old should receive tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap).  If pregnant, wait till after the 5th month.
  • Pneumococcal vaccine should be given to all adults from age 65 and above. It may be given at a younger age if the adult has diabetes, asthma or a history of cigarette smoking.
  • Hepatitis A and B vaccination should be repeated every 5 years.

With these new guidelines, it is hoped that an immunized populace will mean the eradication of preventable diseases that lead to many serious conditions.



Remember: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.


"PLEASE CONSULT YOUR DOCTOR BEFORE DOING IT"




Source: http://ph.she.yahoo.com/vaccinations-are-not-for-children-only.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine


JaKe Positive. BE SAFE! +)

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and MEN


 

What is a Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus. Most sexually active people in the will have HPV at some time in their lives. There are more than 40 types of HPV that are passed on through sexual contact. These types can infect the genital areas of men, including the skin on and around the penis or anus. They can also infect the mouth and throat.

  • Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or groups of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. Health care providers can diagnose warts by looking at the genital area during an office visit. Warts can appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected partner—even if the infected partner has no signs of genital warts. If left untreated, genital warts might go away, remain unchanged, or increase in size or number. Warts will not turn into cancer.
  • Anal warts (also called "condyloma acuminata") are a condition that affects the area around and inside the anus. They may also affect the skin of the genital area. They first appear as tiny spots or growths, perhaps as small as the head of a pin, and may grow larger than the size of a pea. Usually, they do not cause pain or discomfort to afflicted individuals. As a result, patients may be unaware that the warts are present. Some patients will experience symptoms such as itching, bleeding, mucus discharge and/or a feeling of a lump or mass in the anal area.



How do Men get HPV?

HPV is passed on through genital contact—most often during vaginal and anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex. Since HPV usually causes no symptoms, most men and women can get HPV—and pass it on—without realizing it. People can have HPV even if years have passed since they had sex. Even men with only one lifetime sex partner can get HPV.



What are the health problems caused by HPV in men?

Most men who get HPV (of any type) never develop any symptoms or health problems. But some types of HPV can cause genital warts. Other types can cause cancers of the penis, anus, or oropharynx (back of the throat, including base of the tongue and tonsils.) The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types that can cause cancer.

Note: Anal cancer is not the same as colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is more common than anal cancer, and is not caused by HPV.



How common are HPV-related health problems in men?

About 1% of sexually active men in the U.S. have genital warts at any one time.
 

Cancers of the penis, anus and oropharynx are uncommon, and only a subset of these cancers are actually related to HPV. Each year in the U.S. there are about:
400 men who get HPV-related cancer of the penis
1,500 men who get HPV-related cancer of the anus
5,600 men who get cancers of the oropharynx (back of throat), but many of these cancers are related to tobacco and alcohol use, not HPV.


Some men are more likely to develop HPV-related diseases than others:

Gay and bisexual men (who have sex with other men) are about 17 times more likely to develop anal cancer than men who only have sex with women.
 

Men with weakened immune systems, including those who have HIV, are more likely than other men to develop anal cancer. Men with HIV are also more likely to get severe cases of genital warts that are harder to treat.



What are the signs and symptoms?

Most men who get HPV never develop any symptoms or health problems. But for those who do develop health problems, these are some of the signs and symptoms:

One or more growths on the penis, testicles, groin, thighs, or in/around the anus.
Warts may be single, grouped, raised, flat, or cauliflower-shaped. They usually do not hurt.
Warts may appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected person.




Is there a test for HPV in men?

Currently, there is no HPV test recommended for men. The only approved HPV tests on the market are for screening women for cervical cancer. They are not useful for screening for HPV-related cancers or genital warts in men.


There is no approved test to find genital warts for men or women. However, most of the time, you can see genital warts. If you think you may have genital warts, you should see a health care provider.

There is no test for men to check one’s overall “HPV status.” But HPV usually goes away on its own, without causing health problems. So an HPV infection that is found today will most likely not be there a year or two from now. 


You can check for any abnormalities on your penis, scrotum, or around the anus. See your doctor if you find warts, blisters, sores, ulcers, white patches, or other abnormal areas on your penis—even if they do not hurt.



Is there a treatment or cure for HPV?

There is no treatment or cure for HPV. But there are ways to treat the health problems caused by HPV in men.

Genital warts can be treated with medicine, removed (surgery), or frozen off. Some of these treatments involve a visit to the doctor. Others can be done at home by the patient himself. No one treatment is better than another. But warts often come back within a few months after treatment—so several treatments may be needed. 

Treating genital warts may not necessarily lower a man’s chances of passing HPV on to his sex partner. If warts are not treated, they may go away on their own, stay the same, or grow (in size or number)


TREATMENT OPTIONS

Podofilox is an antimitotic drug that destroys warts, is relatively inexpensive, easy to use, safe, and self-applied. Podofilox solution should be applied with a cotton swab, or podofilox gel with a finger, to visible genital warts twice a day for 3 days, followed by 4 days of no therapy. This cycle can be repeated, as necessary, for up to four cycles. The total wart area treated should not exceed 10 cm2, and the total volume of podofilox should be limited to 0.5 mL per day. If possible, the health-care provider should apply the initial treatment to demonstrate the proper application technique and identify which warts should be treated. Mild to moderate pain or local irritation might develop after treatment. The safety of podofilox during pregnancy has not been established.

Imiquimod is a topically active immune enhancer that stimulates production of interferon and other cytokines. Imiquimod cream should be applied once daily at bedtime, three times a week for up to 16 weeks. The treatment area should be washed with soap and water 6–10 hours after the application. Local inflammatory reactions, including redness, irritation, induration, ulceration/erosions, and vesicles, are common with the use of imiquimod, and hypopigmentation has also been described. Imiquimod might weaken condoms and vaginal diaphragms. The safety of imiquimod during pregnancy has not been established.

Sinecatechin ointment, a green-tea extract with an active product (catechins), should be applied three times daily (0.5-cm strand of ointment to each wart) using a finger to ensure coverage with a thin layer of ointment until complete clearance of warts. This product should not be continued for longer than 16 weeks. The medication should not be washed off after use. Sexual (i.e., genital, anal, or oral) contact should be avoided while the ointment is on the skin. The most common side effects of sinecatechins 15% are erythema, pruritis/burning, pain, ulceration, edema, induration, and vesicular rash. This medication may weaken condoms and diaphragms. No clinical data are available regarding the efficacy or safety of sinecatechins compared with other available anogenital wart treatment modalities. The medication is not recommended for HIV-infected persons, immunocompromised persons, or persons with clinical genital herpes because the safety and efficacy of therapy in these settings has not been established. The safety of sinecatechins during pregnancy also is unknown.

Cryotherapy destroys warts by thermal-induced cytolysis. Health-care providers must be trained on the proper use of this therapy because over- and undertreatment can result in complications or low efficacy. Pain after application of the liquid nitrogen, followed by necrosis and sometimes blistering, is common. Local anesthesia (topical or injected) might facilitate therapy if warts are present in many areas or if the area of warts is large.

Pedophyllin resin 10%–25% should be applied to each wart and allowed to air-dry before the treated area comes into contact with clothing; overapplication or failure to air dry can result in local irritation caused by spread of the compound to adjacent areas. The treatment can be repeated weekly, if necessary. To avoid the possibility of complications associated with systemic absorption and toxicity, two guidelines should be followed: 1) application should be limited to <0.5 mL of podophyllin or an area of <10 cm2 of warts per session and 2) the area to which treatment is administered should not contain any open lesions or wounds. The preparation should be thoroughly washed off 1–4 hours after application to reduce local irritation. The safety of podophyllin during pregnancy has not been established. Podophyllin resin preparations differ in the concentration of active components and contaminants. The shelf life and stability of podophyllin preparations are unknown.

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or Bichloroacetic acid (BCA) are caustic agents that destroy warts by chemical coagulation of proteins. Although these preparations are widely used, they have not been investigated thoroughly. TCA solutions have a low viscosity comparable with that of water and can spread rapidly if applied excessively; therefore, they can damage adjacent tissues. A small amount should be applied only to the warts and allowed to dry before the patient sits or stands, at which time a white frosting develops. If pain is intense, the acid can be neutralized with soap or sodium bicarbonate. If an excess amount of acid is applied, the treated area should be powdered with talc, sodium bicarbonate (i.e., baking soda), or liquid soap preparations to remove unreacted acid. This treatment can be repeated weekly, if necessary.

Surgical therapy has the advantage of usually eliminating warts at a single visit. However, such therapy requires substantial clinical training, additional equipment, and a longer office visit. After local anesthesia is applied, the visible genital warts can be physically destroyed by electrocautery, in which case no additional hemostasis is required. Care must be taken to control the depth of electrocautery to prevent scarring. Alternatively, the warts can be removed either by tangential excision with a pair of fine scissors or a scalpel, by laser, or by curettage. Because most warts are exophytic, this procedure can be accomplished with a resulting wound that only extends into the upper dermis. Hemostasis can be achieved with an electrocautery unit or a chemical styptic (e.g., an aluminum chloride solution). Suturing is neither required nor indicated in most cases if surgical removal is performed properly. Surgical therapy is most beneficial for patients who have a large number or area of genital warts. Both carbon dioxide laser and surgery might be useful in the management of extensive warts or intraurethral warts, particularly for those persons who have not responded to other treatments.

Because all available treatments have shortcomings, some clinics employ combination therapy (simultaneous use of two or more modalities on the same wart at the same time). Data are limited regarding the efficacy or risk of complications associated with use of such combinations.

BEFORE PURCHASING THOSE CREAMS/OINTMENTS PLEASE SEEK YOUR DOCTORS ADVISE FIRST.



Are there ways to lower my chances of getting HPV?

A safe and effective HPV vaccine (Gardasil) can protect boys and men against the HPV types that cause most genital warts and anal cancers. It is given in three shots over six months.

Condoms (if used with every sex act, from start to finish) may lower your chances of passing HPV to a partner or developing HPV-related diseases. But HPV can infect areas that are not covered by a condom—so condoms may not fully protect against HPV.

Because HPV is so common and usually invisible, the only sure way to prevent it is not to have sexual contact. Even people with only one lifetime sex partner can get HPV, if their partner was infected with HPV.



I heard about a new HPV vaccine – can it help me?

If you are 26 or younger, there is an HPV vaccine that can help protect you against the types of HPV that most commonly cause problems in men. The HPV vaccine (Gardasil) works by preventing four common HPV types, two that cause most genital warts and two that cause cancers, including anal cancer. It protects against new HPV infections; it does not cure existing HPV infections or disease (like genital warts). It is most effective when given before a person’s first sexual contact (i.e., when s/he may be exposed to HPV).

CDC recommends the HPV vaccine for all boys ages 11 or 12, and for males through age 21, who have not already received all three doses. The vaccine is also recommended for gay and bisexual men (or any man who has sex with men), and men with compromised immune systems (including HIV) through age 26, if they did not get fully vaccinated when they were younger. The vaccine is safe for all men through age 26, but it is most effective when given at younger ages.

The HPV vaccine is very safe and effective, with no serious side effects. The most common side effect is soreness in the arm. Studies show that the vaccine can protect men against genital warts and anal cancers. It is likely that this vaccine also protects men from other HPV-related cancers, like cancers of the penis and oropharynx (back of throat, including base of tongue and tonsils), but there are no vaccine studies that have evaluated these outcomes.



I just found out that my partner has HPV …

What does it mean for my health?


Partners usually share HPV. If you have been with your partner for a long time, you probably have HPV already. Most sexually active adults will have HPV at some time in their lives. Although HPV is common, the health problems caused by HPV are much less common.

Condoms may lower your chances of getting HPV or developing HPV-related diseases, if used with every sex act, from start to finish. You may want to consider talking to your doctor about being vaccinated against HPV if you are 26 years or younger. But not having sex is the only sure way to avoid HPV.

If your partner has genital warts, you should avoid having sex until the warts are gone or removed. You can check for any abnormalities on your penis, such as genital warts. Also, you may want to get checked by a health care provider for genital warts and other sexually transmitted disease (STDs).



What does it mean for our relationship?

A person can have HPV for many years before it is found or causes health problems. So there is no way to know if your partner gave you HPV, or if you gave HPV to your partner. HPV should not be seen as a sign that you or your partner is having sex outside of your relationship.



I just found out I have genital warts …

What does it mean for me and my partner?


Having genital warts may be hard to cope with, but they are not a threat to your health. People with genital warts can still lead normal, healthy lives.

Because genital warts may be easily passed on to sex partners, you should inform them about having genital warts and avoid sexual activity until the warts are gone or removed. There are ways to protect your partner

You and your partner may benefit from getting screened for other STDs.
 

If used with every sex act, male latex condoms may lower your chances of passing genital warts. But HPV can infect areas that are not covered by a condom—so condoms may not fully protect against HPV.

It is important that sex partners discuss their health and risk for STIs. However, it is not clear if there is any health benefit to informing future sex partners about a past diagnosis of genital warts because it is not known how long a person remains contagious after warts are gone. 





Source: http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv-and-men.htm
http://www.fascrs.org/patients/conditions/anal_warts/
http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/genital-warts.htm



JaKe Positive. BE SAFE! +)

Saturday, October 13, 2012

FOR QUESTIONS & INQUIRIES:

Facebook: www.facebook.com/jakepositive
E-mail: jakepositive@gmail.com
Twitter:
@jake_positive
HELPLINE #'s: 09278230300 / 09323298893