I am JaKePositive...I am a Homosexual...I am a Filipino...I am a Proud Ilonggo... I am HIV + since June 2010... I started my ARV Treatment May 4,2013 since my CD4 dropped to 107... I am here to RAISE AWARENESS... I am here to ENCOURAGE HIV TESTING... I am here to SUPPORT MY BROTHER'S and SISTER'S who are living with HIV... I am an ADVOCATE FOR CHANGE...

Friday, June 22, 2012

SAFE SEX 101

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 SAFE SEX 101

The reason why sexual activity is a risk for HIV transmission is because it allows for the exchange of body fluids. Researchers have consistently found that HIV can be transmitted via blood, semen and vaginal secretions. However, researchers have also confirmed that some sexual practices are associated with a higher risk of HIV transmission than others.

Everybody-regardless of their HIV status-should enjoy sex to the fullest. Though the facts about HIV transmission are the same for HIV positive and HIV negative men and women, even the tiniest bit of misunderstanding about how HIV is (and isn't) spread can lead to a lot of confusion when it comes to making important decisions about safer sex.


Risk of HIV transmission associated with different types of sexual activities:

Vaginal Intercourse

Unprotected vaginal intercourse is the most common mode of HIV infection worldwide. In the United States and many other developed nations, it is the second most common mode of sexual HIV transmission (after anal intercourse among men who have sex with men).

Studies have consistently found that HIV-positive men are much more likely to transmit the virus to HIV-negative women through vaginal intercourse than HIV-positive women are to HIV-negative men. Women have a much larger surface area of mucosal tissue than men. Mucosal tissue lining the vagina and cervix can chafe easily and are rich in immune system cells that can be infected by HIV. For men, HIV must enter through a cut or abrasion on the penis, or through the lining of the urethra inside the penis.

There has been some research suggesting that men who are uncircumcised have a higher risk of becoming infected with HIV or transmitting the virus. However, it is important to stress that men who are circumcised can still be infected (or transmit the virus) if condoms are not used for vaginal sex.

Men or women who have ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as genital herpes or syphilis, are more likely to spread the virus if they are HIV positive, or to become infected with the virus if they are HIV negative.

To reduce the risk:
  • Correctly and consistently use CONDOMS every time you have vaginal intercourse with a partner who is positive or whose HIV status you do not know.
  • Use a water-based or silicone-based lubricant with your condom. Lube keeps condoms gliding smoothly, reducing the risk of rips and tears. Lubrication also helps protect the vaginal wall from rips and tears, which can increase the risk of transmission.
  • Don't douche before engaging in vaginal intercourse. This can destroy the healthy bacteria in the mucosal lining of the vagina and can eliminate the vagina's natural lubrication.
  • Don't engage in unprotected vaginal intercourse during menstruation.

Anal Intercourse

Whether you're male or female, being the receptive partner—the "bottom"—during unprotected anal intercourse is linked to a high risk of HIV infection. The reason for this is that HIV-infected semen—and this includes pre-ejaculate (pre-cum)—can come into contact with mucosal tissues in the anus, which are easily damaged during anal intercourse.

Is the insertive partner (the "top") also at risk for contracting HIV during unprotected anal intercourse? While studies haven't proven it, we do know that men can be infected with HIV through vaginal intercourse—an activity in which they are the insertive partner.

To reduce the risk:

  • Correctly and consistently use CONDOMS every time you have anal intercourse with a partner who is positive or whose HIV status you do not know.
  • Use a water-based or silicone-based lubricant with your condom. Lube keeps condoms gliding smoothly, reducing the risk of rips and tears. Lubrication also helps protect the paper-thin anal wall from rips and tears, which can increase the risk of transmission.
  • Don't douche before engaging in anal intercourse. This can destroy the healthy bacteria in the anus and eliminate natural lubrication.

Oral-Penile Sex

Of the different sex acts, the one that often causes the greatest amount of confusion in terms of risk—and raises the greatest number of questions—is oral-penile. The fact is, most experts agree that fellatio, often referred to as "blow jobs," is not an efficient route of HIV transmission. However, this does not mean that it can't happen.

Because unprotected fellatio can mean that body fluids from one person can (and do) come into contact with the mucosal tissues or open cuts, sores or breaks in the skin of another person, there is a "theoretical risk" of HIV transmission. "Theoretical risk" means that passing an infection from one person to another is considered possible, even though there haven't been any (or have only been a few) documented cases. This term is used to differentiate from documented risks. Being the receptive partner during unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with an HIV-positive person is a documented risk, as has been proven with numerous studies and case examples. Unprotected oral sex is a theoretical risk, as it is considered possible, but has never been shown to be an independent risk factor for HIV infection.

There have been three case reports and a few studies suggesting that some people have been infected with HIV as a result of unprotected oral sex. However, these case reports and studies all involved men who were the receptive partners (the person doing the "sucking") during unprotected oral sex with another HIV-positive man. There haven't been any case reports or studies documenting HIV infection among female receptive partners during unprotected oral sex. Even more importantly, there hasn't been a single documented case of HIV transmission to an insertive partner (the person being "sucked") during unprotected oral sex, either among MSM, or heterosexuals.

Is insertive oral sex a possible route of HIV transmission? Yes. But is it a documented risk? No.

To reduce the risk:
  • Don't get cum in your mouth. Also consider using an unlubricated (possibly flavored) condom every time you have oral sex with a partner who is positive or whose HIV status you do not know.
  • Avoid brushing or flossing your teeth immediately before oral sex. This reduces the risk of cuts, tears or abrasions in the mouth that can serve as an entry way for HIV.

Oral-Vaginal Sex

Evaluating the risk of unprotected oral-vaginal sex (cunnilingus) is difficult, given that most people surveyed in studies did not avoid other types of unsafe sexual activity. However, there has been one case of female-to-female transmission of HIV via cunnilingus and another of female-to-male transmission of HIV via cunnilingus. Both of these cases involved transmission from the partner receiving oral sex to the partner performing oral sex. There haven't been any documented cases of HIV transmission from the insertive partner to the receptive partner.

To reduce the risk:
  • Use a latex barrier—such as a natural rubber latex sheet, a dental dam or a cut-open condom that makes a square—between your mouth and the vagina. A latex barrier reduces the risk of blood or vaginal fluids entering your mouth. Plastic food wrap also can be used as a barrier.

Oral-Anal Sex

Oral-anal sex is often referred to as analingus. Analingus, or "rimming," is not considered to be an independent risk factor for HIV. However, it has been shown to be a route of transmission for hepatitis A and B, as well as parasitic infections like giardiasis and amebiasis.

To reduce the risk:
  • Use a latex barrier—such as a natural rubber latex sheet, a dental dam or a cut-open condom that makes a square—between your mouth and the anus. A latex barrier reduces the risk of blood or anal fluids entering your mouth. Plastic food wrap also can be used as a barrier.


Digital-Anal or Digital-Vaginal Sex

Digital-anal or digital-vaginal sex is the clinical term for "fingering" either the anus or the female genitals (including the vagina). While it is theoretically possible that someone who has an open cut or fresh abrasion on his or her finger or hand can be infected with HIV if coming into contact with blood in the anus or vagina or vaginal secretions, there has never been a documented case of HIV transmission via fingering.
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There are a few basic facts to consider:
  • Abstinence is the only 100-percent way to avoid HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
  • If you have a partner who has tested negative for HIV, does not inject drugs and is having sexual contact only with you, there is minimal risk of being infected with the virus.
  • Being infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) can increase an HIV-positive person's chance of transmitting HIV, just as it can increase an HIV-negative person's chance of acquiring HIV.
  • An HIV-positive person with a detectable viral load is more infectious-more likely to transmit the virus to somebody else-that an HIV-positive person who is receiving antiretroviral treatment and has an undetectable viral load.
  • Safer sex practices, including correct and consistent use of condoms for vaginal or anal sex, can reduce the spread of HIV and other STIs.
  • Getting intoxicated or high on drugs, including alcohol, can impair judgment and cause people to forget to take care of themselves-or their sexual partners.
  • Safer sex is not just about vaginal, anal or oral intercourse. Masturbation (alone or with someone else), body rubbing, erotic massage and kissing-they're all fun, no-risk activities.








Again this is JaKePositive. BE SAFE! +)


SOURCE: www.poz.com

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